ufugaji wa samaki
Kuna aina nyingi za samaki wa maji baridi ambao wanaweza kufugika kwa urahisi au ugumu kidogo tu na aina hizo wapo wale ambao sio wa kuzaliana(monosexual) na wale wa kuzaliana(heterosexual)
Urahisi hapa uko zaidi kwenye kuwafuga wasiozaliana sababu hawaongezeki wakati wale wanaozaliana utakuwa na utaratibu wa kuhamisha fishling(vifaranga) sehemu nyingine.
Rasilimali muhimu za kuwa nazo ili kufanikisha shughuli hii ni eneo la ardhi,maji, rasilimali watu na rasilimali fedha.Eneo la ardhi ndio litakaloonyesha ni kwa namna gani bwawa lako liwe,aidha la kujengea na cement,kutandika plastic au kuchimba na kulitumia hivyohivyo.Bwawa huchimbwa/kujengwa kwa kuwa na sakafu yenye ulalo kiasi(gentle slope/gradient)
Wapo samaki aina ya Sato(Tilapia),Kambale(African catfish) na wengine aina ya pangasius ambao hufugwa kwa wingi sana.
Unahitaji samaki 7-8 katika meter moja ya mraba(1m^2) ,kwa maana hiyo kama una meter za mraba 600 nasi unaweza kufuga samaki 4500.Haishauriwi kulundika samaki kwenye eneo dogo kwani itawasababishia ukosefu wa hewa(oxygen).Ingawa zipo njia za kuweza kuongeza upatikanaji wa hewa kwenye mabwawa.
Ukishachimba bwawa lako(aidha na kulijengea) unaingiza maji kwenye bwawa hakikisha yamekaribia futi 2.5 mpaka kujaa full.Itakubidi kufanya liming(kumwagia chokaa bwawa kabla ya kuweka maji ili kuua bacteria hatarishi kwa maisha na afya ya samaki wako) pia unahitajika kuyarutubisha hayo maji kwa kuchanganya na mbolea(kama ya ng’ombe na za viwandani pia ingawa haishauriwi sana) na kusubiria kwa muda usiopungua siku 21 au zaidi.Unafanya hivi ili kuweka mazingira ya chakula asili(natural foood) kwa ajili ya samaki kujitengeneza,vyakula hivo hua katika hali ya mimea na viumbe wadogo(microorganisms)
Upatikanaji wa vifaranga vya samaki,hapa inakubidi uwe makini sana kama umeamua kuzalisha sato,changamoto kubwa ya sato ni kupata mbegu ambayo under right conditions vifaranga vitaweza kua samaki wenye uzito wa kutosha(miezi 6 awe at least 500grams au zaidi).Mbegu ya sato hupatikana kwa bei rejareja ya sh 300 na kambale sh 500 kwa kifaranga kimoja.Wapo wazalishaji wengi wa mbegu za vifaranga wa ndani na nje ya nchi ila kwa Tanzania nimewakubali Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute(TAFIRI) Nyegezi,Mwanza
Ulishaji wa vifaranga vyako ,chakula chao kinategemea na uzito wao mfano samaki hula 5% ya uzito wake wa mwili akiwa mdogo na 3% akiwa mkubwa.Hapa tunaongelea ulishaji wa chakula cha ziada(supplement food),sababu cha asili amekipata kwenye ile mbolea ulioweka.Kama una vifaranga 100 vyenye gram 10 kila kimoja basi utahitaji gram 50 kuwalisha.
Itakuchukua Miezi 6-9 kuanza kuvuna samaki wako ambao unaweza kuwauza kulingana na uzito au au njia utayoona inakufaa.Samaki wengi wa kwenye mabwawa wanavunwa kwa kutumia nyavu au kumwaga maji yote nje ya bwawa.Masoko yake haya samaki ni pamoja na supermarkets, wafanyabiashara sokoni na mitaani pamoja na watu binafsi.
UJENZI WA BANDA LA KUKU WA MAYAI
Banda zuri la kuku linamlinda kuku wako, humfanya akue kwa afya nzuri, na husaidia utagaji kukua. Kupata uzalishaji mkubwa katika kuku wa mayai unahitaji kua na uangalizi bora. Chakula bora na banda linalofaa ni vigezo viwili muhimu katika kufanikisha biashara yako ya mayai. Banda ni muhimu katika kuwakuza kuku wako kibiashara. Banda bora litawalinda kuku wako kutoka kwa hali ya hewa isiyofaa, wadudu au wanyama wakali, na hata majeraha kwa kuku wako. Kuku wanahitaji banda lenye nafasi na lililo kavu. Hewa safi pia ni muhimu kupatikana katika banda lako na pia liwe na uangalizi mzuri wa joto linalohitajika.
Kupata hewa inayotakiwa banda liwe na madirisha makubwa ya wavu na pia yawe na uwezo wa kufunikwa ili kuweza kuzuia jua au kipindi cha baridi. Pia inashauriwa uweke kuku wako katika cages ambazo zitasaidia kuongeza uzalishaji na kupunguza hatari ya magonjwa kwa kuku wako. Katika system ya cages unaweza kufuga maelfu ya kuku katika banda moja kubwa bila kua na wasiwasi wa magonjwa kusambaa.
Banda la kuku wa mayai lazima liwe refu kidogo kulinganisha na la kuku wa nyama.
Kabla ya kujenga banda hakikisha unazingatia yafuatayo:
- Jenga banda sehemu iliyotulia isiyo na pilika pilika za watu.
- Lijengwe sehemu yenye iliyopangiliwa ambayo maji hayatuami ndani wala nje ya banda kuepusha magonjwa..
- Ni vizuri banda likaelekea upande usio na jua kali, na pia lugeukie upande ambao upepo unawez kupita vizuri, ila tu kuku wasipigwe na upepo moja kwa moja.
- hakikisha unatoa nafasi ya kutosha kwa kila kuku ili kupunguza kiwango cha unyevu kinachoweza kutengenezwa. Kuku mmoja anahitaji 40-50 cm square
- Weka uzio nje ya banda kuzuia wezi na wanyama wakali wanoweza kuwadhuru kuku wako.
- Banda lako liweze kuwapatia kuku jumla ya masaa 16 kwa siku ya mwanga ili wapate kutaga vizuri.
- kama una banda zaidi ya moja hakikisha yamepishana kwa futi 40 kati ya banda na banda.
- weka vifaa vyote vinavyoweza kuzuia wadudu kuingia katika banda lako.
UFUGAJI WA SUNGURA KIBIASHARA PART 1
Leo tutaangalia ufugaji wa sungura kibiashara. Tanzania ufugaji wa sungura ulikua ni wa mazoea na wengi wetu hatukuzitambua fursa zilizopo katika biashara hiyo. Hivi karibuni mwamko umeanza kutokea baada ya wengi kuanza kutambua faida zilizopo katika nyama, mkojo na hata kinyesi cha sungura. Pakua part ya kwanza ya somo hili hapo chini
Download hapa : UFUGAJI BORA WA SUNGURA- PART 1
- Sungura akitafuna majani
UFUGAJI WA SUNGURA KIBIASHARA PART 2
Karibuni katika wiki ya nne ya mafunzo ya ufugaji. Na tutaangalia sehemu ya pili ya ufugaji wa sungura. Muendelezo huu ni baada ya somo la wiki iliyopita la ufugaji wa sungura. Kupata somo hilo download document hapo chini
Download hapa : UFUGAJI BORA WA SUNGUR-PART 2
UFUGAJI WA SUNGURA KIBIASHARA PART 3
Karibuni katika wiki wa 5 ya ufugaji huku tukiendelea na somo letu la ufugaji sungura kibiashara. Leo tutamalizia katika ujengaji wa mabanda na maandalizi ya ufugaji huo kwa ujumla ili iwezi kukupatia faida zaidi wewe kama mfugaji.
Download hapa: UFUGAJI BORA WA SUNGURA PART 3
UFUGAJI BORA WA SAMAKI
Leo tutaangalia ufugaji bora wa samaki. Ufugaji wa samaki kwenye mabwawa huhitaji utaalamu wa hali ya juu na umakini. Kuanzia ujengaji wa bwawa, ulishaji na hali kadhalika aina ya mbegu ya hao samaki. Tuangalie kwa kifupi njia bora za ufugaji wa samaki
Download hapa : UFUGAJI BORA WA SAMAKI
- Mabwawa ya samaki yaliyojengewa
UFUGAJI BORA WA NG’OMBE WA MAZIWA
Karibu kwenye darasa la mafunzo. Leo tutatoa somo la ufugaji bora wa ng’ombe wa maziwa. Ufugaji wa ng’ombe wa maziwa unakua kwa kasi nchini Tanzania na ni wenye Tija sana kwa wafugaji na watumiaji pia ikiwa sheria na mbinu bora za ufugaji huo zimezingatiwa.
Pakua somo la ufugaji wa Ng’ombe hapa chini:
Download : UFUGAJI BORA WA NG’OMBE WA MAZIWA
- Hon. Prime minister Kassim Majaliwa inspecting dairy cattle
Over the past 20 years, the commercial poultry industry has grown tremendously worldwide. Chicken consumption has increased due to its versatility as a food, and it is lower priced and considered a healthier choice as compared to other meats. As the poultry industry has rapidly expanded, diseases have become more common and costly. Companies have to rely on more vaccines and antibiotics to control losses.
In East Africa and especially Tanzania, the poultry industry is plagued with many diseases and these are having a negative impact on performance and profitability.
However, it is becoming apparent that it is necessary to go back to the ‘basics’. Many realize that vaccines and other treatments have limitations. To be successful, there has to be a change in the manner in which poultry is raised. The key to future success and expansion will come about through elimination and control of diseases and this can only be brought about by implementation of Biosecurity programs.
IMPORTANCE OF BIOSECURITY
Biosecurity is critical to the future of the poultry industry. While there are vaccines and antibiotics to assist, it will be necessary to prevent and eliminate disease agents if the poultry industry is to prosper.
Biosecurity is simply a plan to prevent the entry of a disease agent onto a farm and spread among farms.
LOCATION, HOUSE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR BIOSECURE POULTRY FARMS
- Choose a location distant from other poultry farms to prevent spread of disease agents. A minimum of 500 meters is suggested.
- Consider the direction of the prevailing winds to take advantage of ventilation. Consider location of housing for younger birds, including the hatchery, so they are not downwind from housing with older birds.
- Avoid building in lowlands that are prone to flooding such as flood zones, waterways and wetlands.
- Avoid construction in wetlands frequented by migratory birds that are known carriers of catastrophic diseases such as Avian Influenza and Newcastle. Also avoid stagnant waters.
- Construct poultry houses away from main roads that may be used by poultry transport vehicles. A minimum of 300 meters from a road is suggested.
- Farms should not be located close to hatcheries, feed mills or processing plants. Isolation of the facilities is a major factor in preventing disease spread.
Poultry house design:
- Poultry houses with different ages of chickens should be as far apart from each other as possible to prevent transmission of disease agents.
- The farm should be fenced to prevent entry of unauthorized people and other animals such as dogs, cats, backyard chickens, etc.
- Provide a one-way flow of traffic on the farm from the least contaminated to the most contaminated areas.
- It is suggested to cull sick and injured chickens in the houses and avoid use of hospital or quarantine pens.
- The openings into the houses should be fitted with screen to prevent entry of insects.
- There should be a single entry point onto the farm which is equipped with disinfection equipment for all vehicles, people and equipment that are brought onto the premises. NO EXCEPTIONS!
- The entrance to each poultry house should be equipped with wellmaintained cleaning and disinfection basins which all workers are trained in how to properly decontaminate on entry and exit from the house.
- Access to the poultry houses must be through a compulsory compartment where cleaning and disinfection can be conducted.
- Dead chickens on the farm must be disposed of daily in an appropriate manner. Options include sending dead chickens off site to a distant location or incinerating, composting or burying in a sealed container onsite.
- The floor of the poultry houses should be sloped so rainwater and waste water can be directed away from the houses.
- Feed storage site should be designed and maintained so to provide good conditions.
Materials used for the construction of poultry houses must be resistant and easy to clean and disinfect. Selection of material must take into account the local climatic conditions.
Vehicles are recognized as a major risk factor for the spread of diseases among poultry farms. Many vehicles must enter the farm: chicks brought from hatchery, feed from mill, bedding from depot, gas cylinders from supplier, processing trucks from plant, servicemen from company and other farms,… As these vehicles often visit other sites where poultry are present, they serve as a means of disease spread. Thus, only absolutely necessary vehicles should be permitted to enter a farm and these must be decontaminated on entry and exit.
There is no doubt that people are the most important factor in the spread of diseases. Thus, only people who are absolutely necessary should be permitted onto a farm. People that must enter the farm should be decontaminated. Notices should be placed at entry points to inform that only authorized people are permitted access.
It is common practice to visit the youngest birds first. If you visit a sick flock, do not visit other flocks without decontamination. Have stations to change clothing and decontaminate boots prior to entering each house.
All visitors, at the very minimum, should be required to wear dedicated clothing and footwear.
- Boots or plastic cover
- Head cover
Properly maintained foot baths at the entry to the farm and then to each house is mandatory. These need to include a station for cleaning and removing organic materials and then a station for disinfection. All workers need to be taught how to use them correctly.
The fight against pests is a never ending battle in a poultry farm. Wire mesh siding is suggested at all openings into the poultry house to prevent entry of even small birds and rodents. The presence of insects in the house annoys the birds leading to nervousness and even pecking. These can also serve as mechanical carriers of infectious diseases agents. Rodents are particularly dangerous to poultry farms since they are common, reproduce rapidly and carry many diseases that may affect chickens.
The damage caused by rodents includes:
- Contamination of feed by feces, urine and hair.
- Damage to equipment and cables increasing risk of fires and power failures. Loss of ventilation can be catastrophic in a short time.
- Consumption of feed and attacking young chickens.
- Transmission of numerous diseases including Salmonella, Pasteurella,…
IMPORTANCE OF FEED AND WATER QUALITY
Chickens must be provided high quality feed and water to achieve performance goals. Maintaining quality through the production cycle is essential. Feed must be protected during shipment so feed delivery vehicles must be maintained and disinfected before and after each delivery.
Excellent water quality is critical to achieve the desired performance. Water is used for several functions during poultry production such as cleaning, disinfection, drinking and mixing with medicine and vaccines.
Maintaining water quality:
- Install filters to reduce suspended solids.
- Regular water treatment: chlorination and acidification.
- Routine analysis (physiochemical and microbiological) of samples.
- Use of rapid tests (strips and kits) offers immediate information of some parameters of poultry drinking water such as pH, chlorine level, hardness,…
Poultry houses provide an environment that facilitates the growth of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. Within houses, there are live chickens, manure, and favorable temperature and humidity. If houses are not cleaned and disinfected and left vacant between growing cycles, disease organisms will persist and infect incoming flocks.
Farm disinfection is a critical part of the decontamination process. It must be done correctly to kill disease organisms. This would include washing the farm and area around the poultry houses thoroughly. This is followed by applying the disinfectant according the recommendations of the manufacturer. Finally the house needs to remain empty for 2- 3 weeks prior to reintroducing chickens. Simply applying disinfectant to dirty surfaces will not effectively kill the diseases organisms.
Commitment is a concept that is well entrenched in the human medical field. This is increasingly being applied in animal husbandry. This aims to assess the degree of agreement between the behavior of an individual and the medical recommendations.
Biosecurity is a tool that helps to identity where and how errors are committed by the farmer, technician, veterinarian,… and provides a roadmap on how to resolve the problem. In working with performance problems with commercial poultry, many people state that it is easy to solve a problem. The hard part is to figure out what the problem is! Due to the extreme complexity of the modern poultry industry, it is often difficult to identify the actual problem. With good and organized data and stringent biosecurity, this is made easier.
Source: Biosecurity Guide for Commercial Poultry Production in the Middle East and North Africa. www.ussec.org